Applicable specifications: ASTM F3184
Associated specifications: AMS5648, ASME SA479, ASTM A276, ASTM A479, QQ-S-763, MIL-S-862, AMS5653, ASTM A182, ASTM A314, DIN 1.4404, ISO 5832-1, SAE J405 (316L), UNS S31600/S31603
Single figures are nominal except where noted.
PowderRange 316L is a low carbon, non-magnetic, austenitic stainless steel that exhibits moderate to good strength, good fracture toughness, and has generally good corrosion resistance, especially intergranular corrosion. It has excellent weldability in laser and electron-beam additive manufacturing processes and can be processed in either argon or nitrogen shielding gas.
PowderRange 316L cannot be strengthened through post processing heat treatments but can be solution annealed to improve corrosion resistance. Solution annealing is application-specific, but is generally not necessary for most situations. Post processing can include traditional machining, abrasive flow machining, shot-peening, grinding, polishing, chemical milling/etching, and other methods.
|Part Number||PowderRange 316L F||PowderRange 316L E|
|Application||L-PBF1||EB-PBF or DED1|
|Maximum Particle Size||Max 1 wt% > 53 µm2||Max 10 wt% > 106 μm2|
|Minimum Particle Size||Max 10 vol% < 15 µm3||Max 10 wt% < 45 μm2|
|LSD Percentile||D10, D50, D903, reported|
|Atomization||Nitrogen Gas Atomized|
|Apparent Density (G/CM3)||Measured according to ASTM B2124 and reported|
|Hall Flow (S/50G)||Measured according to ASTM B2135 and reported|
1ASTM/ISO 52900: Laser—Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF), Electron-Beam Powder Bed Fusion (EB-PBF), Directed Energy Deposition (DED)
2ASTM B214 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis for Metal Powders
3 ASTM B822 Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Metal Powders and Related Compounds by Light Scattering
4 ASTM B212 Standard Test Method for Apparent Density of Free-Flowing Metal Powders Using the Hall Flowmeter Funnel
5 ASTM B213 Standard Test Method for Flow Rate of Metal Powders Using the Hall Flowmeter Funnel
Testing of powder will fulfill certification requirements to Nadcap Materials Testing and ISO/IEC 17025 Chemical, per relevant ASTM procedures
FIGURE 1—SEM IMAGE OF TYPICAL PowderRange 316L POWDER
Additive manufacturing process guidance
ASTM F3184: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING STAINLESS STEEL ALLOY (UNS 31603) WITH POWDER BED FUSION
TRANSVERSE (X-Y PLANE)
LONGITUDINAL (Y-Z PLANE)
Mean densities greater than 99.9%
Up to 100% density
Clean weld tracks visible
Minimal spatter porosity
Minimal grain growth Weld tracks may still be visible Grain size ASTM 4-57
Homogenized microstructure Grain size ASTM 4-57
6 Etched with Ralph’s etchant
7 ASTM E112-13 Standard Test Method for Determining Average Grain Size
Typical achievable mechanical properties
8Average of a minimum of 5 samples taken from across the extents of a build plate in each orientation and for each heat treatment. Testing performed in accordance with ASTM E8/E8M-16a (tensile), ASTM E23-18 (impact energy) and ASTM E18-19 (hardness). Additional data may be available through a wide range of consortia and other collaborations. Please contact Carpenter Additive for additional information.
9 ASTM F3184-16 Condition “A — Stress Relieved” Minimum Tensile Requirements
IMPORTANT NOTE: The following 4-level rating scale (Excellent, Good, Moderate, Restricted) is intended for comparative purposes only and is derived from experiences with wrought product. Additive manufactured material may perform differently; corrosion testing is recommended. Factors that affect corrosion resistance include temperature, concentration, pH, impurities, aeration, velocity, crevices, deposits, metallurgical condition, stress, surface finish, and dissimilar metal contact.
|Salt Spray (NaCl)||Good|
|Other Generic Names|
|GE (Concept Laser)|
|DMG Mori (Realizer)|
The mechanical and physical properties of any additively-manufactured
material are strongly dependent on the processing conditions used to
produce the final part. Significantly differing properties can be obtained by
utilizing different equipment, different process parameters, different build
rates and different geometries. The properties listed are intended as a
guide only and should not be used as design data.
The information and data presented herein are typical or average values
and are not a guarantee of maximum or minimum values. Applications
specifically suggested for material described herein are made solely for the
purpose of illustration to enable the reader to make his/her own evaluation
and are not intended as warranties, either express or implied, of fitness for
these or other purposes. There is no representation that the recipient of
this literature will receive updated editions as they become available.
Unless otherwise specified, registered trademarks are property of
CRS Holdings Inc., a subsidiary of Carpenter Technology Corporation.